This focuses on different target areas:
The FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® Dermural Sanitiser citrus extracts contain flavonoid compounds which have proven antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, killing 99.9% of these pathogens at dilutions of 1% after one minute contact time when tested in accordance with Section 5.2 of SANS 1615-2011.
Polyphenols display broad antimicrobial activity towards bacteria, fungi and viruses. Antibacterial activity of citrus bioflavonoids has also been shown, with increased activity towards gram-negative bacteria.
Polyphenols also possess antiviral activity toward a range of viruses including RNA viruses (norovirus surrogates, rotavirus, enteroviruses, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Zika virus) and DNA viruses (hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus).
In relation to the current COVID-19 pandemic, the hesperidin flavinoid found in citrus extracts has very recently, in pre-print computer-generated models, shown potential as an inhibitor to the development of the SARS-CoV-2 by binding to the viral receptors.
The 3CL protease, one of the key proteases in coronaviruses (CoV), which includes the SARS-CoV, is inhibited by a range of flavonoids. More specifically, the citrus flavonoids hesperetin, apigenin, luteolin and quercetin showed noteworthy antiviral activity through 3CL protease inhibition.
Citrus flavonoids show an immuno-regulatory role to regulate the immune response and the so-called cytokine storm associated with the overreaction of the body’s immune system which increases the severity as well as complications and high fatalities of COVID-19.
The FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® Dermural Sanitiser essential oils and their isolated constituents have shown noteworthy antibacterial activity toward a range of pathogens, particularly in vitro studies assessing the effects on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and Staphylococcus aureus, together with testing done in clinical trials.
Selected terpenes have been shown to reduce viral infectivity by 100%. The mode of antiviral action of monoterpenes towards the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entails their direct interaction with free virus particles, thereby inactivating viral infection of HSV-1 in a dose-dependent manner before the virus particles enter host cells.
Laurus nobilis oil, containing β-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β- pinene as the main constituents, shows activity against SARS-CoV. The addition of linalool to Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil (main constituent Eugenol) in a synergistic manner enhances its antimicrobial efficacy against bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Aspergillus brasiliensis.
Studies on linalool-containing essential oils indicate that this compound possesses antimicrobic, antibacterial and antiviral effects, as well as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and local anaesthetic activities.
Eugenol is virucidal towards HSV-1, HSV-2 and inhibits replication. The latter’s virucidal activity was found to be higher than clinical control Acyclovir alone, and in combinations was found to synergistically inhibit herpes virus replication in vitro.
Coronavirus is not a living organism like a bacteria, but a protein molecule (RNA) covered by a protective lipid shell or encapsulation. A person becomes infected when the virus is absorbed by the victim’s mucous membranes through the eyes, nose or mouth. The Coronavirus can be picked from surfaces.
Coronavirus on surfaces normally degrades and decomposes over several days depending on the characteristics of the surface. This decomposition can be rapidly accelerated when the lipid encapsulation is degraded by the application of FRONTLINE Organic Fresh®
FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® has shown dramatic advantages over other cleaning products, in the rapid and complete breakdown of lipid structures such as fats, oils, and grease.
The lipid structure of the Coronavirus encapsulation is particularly vulnerable to rapid cleaning with FRONTLINE Organic Fresh®
FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® also rapidly eliminates biofilms and deeply embedded organic residues and substrates that can entrap and harbor Coronavirus and other pathogens.
Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview
Current evidence and future prospects.
Natural compounds are an important source for the discovery and the development of novel antiviral drugs because of their availability and expected low side effects. Naturally occurring flavonoids with antiviral activity have been recognized since the 1940s and many reports on the antiviral activity of
various flavonoids are available. Search of effective drug against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the need of hour. Most of the work related with antiviral compounds revolves around inhibition of various enzymes associated with the life cycle of viruses. Structure function relationship between flavonoids and their enzyme inhibitory activity has been observed. Gerdin and Srensso demonstrated that flavan-3-o1 was more effective than flavones and flavonones in selective inhibition of HIV-1, HIV-2, and similar immunodeficiency virus infections. Baicalin, a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamieaceae), inhibits HIV-1 infection and replication. Baicalein and other flavonoids such as robustaflavone and hinokiflavone have also been shown to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Another study revealed inhibition of HIV-1 entry into cells expressing CD4 and chemokine coreceptors and antagonism of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by the flavone Oglycoside. Catechins are also known to inhibit DNA polymerases of HIV-1. Flavonoid such as demethylated gardenin A and robinetin are known to inhibit HIV-1 proteinase. It has also been reported that the flavonoids chrysin, acacetin, and apigenin prevent HIV-1 activation via a novel mechanism that probably involves inhibition of viral transcription.
Various combinations of flavones and flavonols have been shown to exhibit synergism. Kaempferol and luteolin show synergistic effect against herpes simplex virus (HSV). Synergism has also been reported between flavonoids and other antiviral agents. Quercetin is reported to potentiate the effects of 5- ethyl-2-dioxyuridine and acyclovir against HSV and pseudorabies infection. Studies have displayed that flavonols are more active than flavones against herpes simplex virus type 1 and the activity order was found to be galangin, kaempferol, and quercetin.
Zandi et al. studied the antidengue virus properties of quercetin, hesperetin, naringin, and daidzein at different stages of DENV-2 (dengue virus type-2) infection and replication cycle. Quercetin was found to be most effective against DENV-2 in Vero cells. Many flavonoids, namely, dihydroquercetin,
dihydrofisetin, leucocyanidin, pelargonidin chloride, and catechin, show activity against several types of virus including HSV, respiratory syncytial virus, polio virus and Sindbis virus. Inhibition of viral polymerase and binding of viral nucleic acid or viral capsid proteins have been proposed as antiviral mechanisms of action.
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FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® has been subjected to very strict regulatory and quality control measures to obtain the following registrations and approvals in SA: