The FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® Dermural Sanitiser  citrus extracts contain flavonoid compounds which have proven antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureusPseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, killing 99.9% of these pathogens at dilutions of 1% after one minute contact time when tested in accordance with Section 5.2 of SANS 1615-2011.

Polyphenols display broad antimicrobial activity towards bacteria, fungi and viruses. Antibacterial activity of citrus bioflavonoids has also been shown, with increased activity towards gram-negative bacteria.

Polyphenols also possess antiviral activity toward a range of viruses including RNA viruses (norovirus surrogates, rotavirus, enteroviruses, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Zika virus) and DNA viruses (hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus).

In relation to the current COVID-19 pandemic, the hesperidin flavinoid found in citrus extracts has very recently, in pre-print computer-generated models, shown potential as an inhibitor to the development of the SARS-CoV-2 by binding to the viral receptors.

The 3CL protease, one of the key proteases in coronaviruses (CoV), which includes the SARS-CoV, is inhibited by a range of flavonoids. More specifically, the citrus flavonoids hesperetin, apigenin, luteolin and quercetin showed noteworthy antiviral activity through 3CL protease inhibition.

Citrus flavonoids show an immuno-regulatory role to regulate the immune response and the so-called cytokine storm associated with the overreaction of the body’s immune system which increases the severity as well as complications and high fatalities of COVID-19.


The FRONTLINE Organic Fresh® Dermural Sanitiser   essential oils and their isolated constituents have shown noteworthy antibacterial activity toward a range of pathogens, particularly in vitro studies assessing the effects on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and Staphylococcus aureus, together with testing done in clinical trials.

Selected terpenes have been shown to reduce viral infectivity by 100%. The mode of antiviral action of monoterpenes towards the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entails their direct interaction with free virus particles, thereby inactivating viral infection of HSV-1 in a dose-dependent manner before the virus particles enter host cells.

Laurus nobilis oil, containing β-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β- pinene as the main constituents, shows activity against SARS-CoV. The addition of linalool to Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil (main constituent Eugenol) in a synergistic manner enhances its antimicrobial efficacy against bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Aspergillus brasiliensis.

Studies on linalool-containing essential oils indicate that this compound possesses antimicrobic, antibacterial and antiviral effects, as well as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and local anaesthetic activities.

Eugenol is virucidal towards HSV-1, HSV-2 and inhibits replication. The latter’s virucidal activity was found to be higher than clinical control Acyclovir alone, and in combinations was found to synergistically inhibit herpes virus replication in vitro.